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2D primitives in 3D

Conversion to 3D primitives

The existing 2D primitives may be represented by the equivalent 3D primitive for the 2D primitive, extruded in z to a single z plane thickness.

While this is desirable for reducing code complexity, retaining the 2D primitives is necessary for 2D measurements (area/perimeter). These can be obtained from the 3D shape by dividing the volume or surface area by the z thickness, respectively. Having the 2D primitives will provide the context for conversion of measurements from 3D volume to 2D surface, since these are otherwise meaningless for 3D ROIs which are not extruded 2D ROIs.

3D ROIs, where appropriate, could provide alternative forms for 2D use. For example, a 3D cylinder would, when extruded from a 2D circle, not have end faces (i.e. would be open), in order for 2D surface area measurements to be correct.

Use of 2D primitives in 3D space

While it would be possible to translate and rotate 2D primitives in 3D using a 4×4 matrix, it would be simpler for users if rotation could be specified using a unit vector which can specify the angle of the primitive in 3D space; the matrix transform can be trivially construct ed from the vector. However, note that while current transforms occur only in 2D, where the x and y pixel sizes are typically the same, this is not usually the case in z, and so the transformations may need performing in physical units; therefore adding proper support for units would also be desirable to fully support 3D transforms. Note that this would also solve the existing problem in 2D that prevents ellipses and rectangles being rotated (without the use of a matrix transform), though where the rotation centre should be may be shape- and context-dependent. The unit vector to (0,0,-1) which would specify the existing behaviour.


Define behaviour of orientation of unit vector for rotation; which direction are primitives facing by default?

2D extrusion

Reconstruction of 3D shapes from 2D planes distributed in z/t. -> set of 3D objects in t.

2D decomposition

Decompose 3D shape into 3D planes distributed in z.